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CCNA Test prep


OSI Reference 1) Identify and describe functions of the layers of the OSI Reference Model 7.) Applications:
Where the user applications software lies. Such issues as file access and transfer, virtual terminal emulation, nterprocess ommunication and the like are handled here.

6.) Presentation: Data representation
Differences in data representation are dealt with at this level. For example, UNIX-style line endings (CR only) might be converted to MS-DOS style (CRLF), or EBCIDIC to ASCII character sets.
Data formats and data structures.
5.) Session: Inter-host communications
As its name implies, the session layer establishes, manages, and terminates sessions between applications. Sessions consist of dialogue between two or more presentation entities (recall that the session layer provides its services to the presentation layer). The session layer synchronizes dialogue between presentation layer entities and manages their data exchange. In addition to basic regulation of conversations (sessions), the session layer offers provisions for data expedition, class of service, and exception reporting of
session-layer, presentation-layer, and application-layer problems.
E.G NFS, SQL, RPC, X Co-ordinates communication. Service requests, service replies.
4.) Transport: End to end connections
Segments upper layer apps.
Establish end to end connection
Send segments
Optionally ensure data reliability
Multiplexing, connection synchronisation, flow control, error recovery, reliability through windowing.

This is the lower layer that provides local user services.
3.) Network: Address and best path
This layer makes certain that a packet sent from one device to another actually gets there in a reasonable period of time. Routing and flow control is performed here. This is the lowest layer of the OSI model that can remain ignorant of the physical network.
2.) Data Link: Access to media
This layer deals with getting data packets on and off the wire, error detection and correction and retransmission. This layer is generally broken into two sub-layers: The LLC (Logical Link Control) on the upper half, which does the error checking, and the MAC (Medium Access Control) on the lower half, which deals with getting the data on and off the wire.

Provides reliable transit of data across a physical link. The data-link layer is concerned with physical addressing, network topology, line discipline, error notification, ordered delivery of frames, and flow control. (From CCO)

1.) Physical: Binary transmission
Access to the wires of the network
Here is where the cable, connector and signalling specifications are defined. 2) Connection-oriented vs. connectionless service Connection-oriented: a virtual circuit is established
Connection establishment and termination required
Sequenced, acknowledged data delivery
Built-in error detection/retransmission
Sliding window flow control

Connectionless: Data transfer without virtual circuit
No message sequencing
No delivery guarantee
Higher layer is responsible for error recovery,
flow control, and reliability


3) Data-Link vs. network addresses

Link Layer: MAC address (see 60) below)
Network Layer: Virtual/logical address, unique within a
hierarchical address space, contains a network
and a host part


4) Identify 3 reasons for using a layered model Reduce complexity - divide interrelated aspects into less complex elements Standardise interfaces
Facilitates modular engineering
Ensures interoperable technology
Accelerates evolution
Simplifies teaching and learning


5) Explain 5 conversions steps of data encapsulation Application/Presentation/Session Layer: Accepts user input, converts into data
Transport Layer: Adds segment (TCP or UDP) header segment
Network Layer: Adds network header with packet
Link Layer: Adds frame Header frame
Physical Layer: Converts frame into bit stream bits

6) Define flow control and describe three basic methods used in networking Technique for ensuring that a transmitting entity, such as a modem, does not overwhelm a receiving entity with data. When the buffers on the receiving device are full, a message is sent to the sending device to suspend the transmission until the data in the buffers has been processed.

Stop/Go method eg XON/XOFF character based, CTS/RTS hardware based
Window eg ack after so many segments Acknowledgement techniques

7) Key internetwork functions of OSI Network layer and how they are performed in a router
Network Layer: Routing, provide dynamic control over connectivity,
flexibility, performance, and management

Network layer handles best path determination and deals with addressing

WAN Protocols

8) Differentiate between the following WAN services Frame Relay, ISDN/LAPD,
HDLC, PPP

Frame Relay: Variation of HDLC, uses PVC (Private Virtual Circuit)
Can do multipoint
ISDN/LAPD: variation of a subset of HDLC - ABM mode.
Data link signalling HDLC: High level data link control - superset of SDLC
PPP: Extended SDLC with protocol indicator (for multi-protocol
support) and LCP (Link Control Protocol) for establishing,
configuring, maintaining, and terminating connections
Point to point

Usage:

SDLC Host (eg mainframe) to Router

HDLC
LAPB Router to Router
PPP

X25
ISDN Router to Network (public switched network)
Frame Relay

9) Recognise Frame relay terms and features VC: Virtual Circuit (PVC, SVC), SVC can be over ISDN
DLCI: Data-link connection ID, identifies a PVC
LMI: Local Management Interface, control protocol for PVC setup
and management. Extends frame relay protocol - allows
multicast and xon/xoff flow control, global addresses.

LMI types : ansi Annex D
Q933a Annex A (CCITT)
cisco

Uses Statistical multiplexing
High performance - efficient. Assumes reliable physical layer.
No error correction/retransmission - just checksum.
No explicit flow control, just congestion notification
Flow control and error retransmission left to upper layers.
Wide range of speeds from 56k over T1 (1.5Kbps) to DS3 (45 Mbps)


10) List commands to configure Frame Relay LMIs, maps, and subinterfaces

int ser0
encapsulation frame-relay [ietf | cisco] (default = cisco)

Optional:

frame-relay lmi-type [ansi | cisco | q933a] (default = cisco)
keepalive 10

Static mapping of dlci:
frame-relay map <protocol> <address> <dlci> [broadcast] [ietf|cisco]

(map a DLCI to a network for a given protocol, allows routing updates
only if "broadcast" is defined: frame map ip 192.168.0.1 70. Used if
other router doesn’t use Inverse ARP, or the protocol doesn’t support it.)

Dynamic mapping of dlci doesn't need anything - just uses Inverse ARP.

int s0.<sub-number] (point-to-point | multi-point)
frame-relay interface-dlci <dlci> (broadcast)


The following example illustrates how to configure two routers for static mode.

Configuration for Router 1

interface serial 0
ip address 131.108.64.2 255.255.255.0
encapsulation frame-relay
keepalive 10
frame-relay map ip 131.108.64.1 43

Configuration for Router 2

interface serial 0
ip address 131.108.64.1 255.255.255.0
encapsulation frame-relay
keepalive 10
frame-relay map ip 131.108.64.2 43


Basic Subinterface Examples

interface serial 0
encapsulation frame-relay
interface serial 0.1 point-to-point
ip address 10.0.1.1 255.255.255.0
frame-relay interface-dlci 42
!
interface serial 0.2 multipoint
ip address 10.0.2.1 255.255.255.0
frame-relay map 10.0.2.2 18


11) List commands to monitor Frame Relay operations in the router

show int ser0
debug frame-relay lmi
show frame-relay lmi
show frame-relay pvc
show frame-relay traffic
show frame-relay map


12) Identify PPP operations to encapsulate WAN data on routers

username <name> password <password> (to set CHAP password)

int ser0
encapsulation ppp
ppp authentication (pap | chap)
ppp multilink


13) Relevant use and context for ISDN

All digital service for voice, data, video, telecommuting etc.
Fast connection setup
Higher bandwidth than traditional modem
Use as a backup link
Dial on deman


14) ISDN protocols, functions groups, reference points, and channels

E protocols - Telephone network standards
I protocols - Concepts, terminology, and general methods
Q protocols - Switching and signalling

Functions are devices or hardware functions:
TA - Terminal adapter
TE1|2 - Terminal end point 1 (integrated TA) or 2 (needs TA)
NT1 - Network termination ("signal converter")
NT2 - found in PBXs etc, combines layer 2 and 3 functions
NT1/NT2 combined units
LT - Local termination (access point at phone company)
ET - Exchange termination (communicates with other ISDn components)

Reference points are interfaces (between functions)

Phone --+-- TA --+-- NT1 --+-- ISDN Switch
R S/T U

PC --+-- NT1 --+-- ISDN Switch
S/T U

Bearer channel: Used for data transfer (voice or data)
Data channel: Used for control/signaling information using LAPD


15) Describe Cisco's implementation of ISDN BRI

Is a TE1 (i.e. has a built-in ISDN TA)
Available in several routers
SNMP support
PPP with compression
Multiprotocol support
supports DDR (dial on demand routing),
supports call screening
multiple bearer channels
bandwidth on demand


isdn switch-type <type> (telco dependant)
ip route <network> <mask> <next-hop> (setup static route)
dialer-list <group> protocol <prot-name> [permit|deny] (access list)

int bri0
encapsulation [ppp|hdlc]
ip address <address> <mask>

dialer-group <group-number>
dialer idle-timeout 300
dialer-map <protocol> <next-hop-address> [name <name>] [speed <speed>]
<dial-string> [broadcast]

isdn spid1 <number> (to set up Service Profile ID, provider specific)
isdn spid2 <number> (same for 2nd bearer channel)

Rate adaptation is the setting of the speed parameter in the dialer-map command.

Sub addresses are used if there is more than one device connected to the NT1 eg fax/phone. Use :X appended to the ‘phone number’, where X is the device number.

Bandwidth on demand – use load-threshold to specify when to use extra channel via multilink PPP. Can be based on traffic (in | out | either).

Call screening use isdn caller <number>
Number which interface responds to: isdn answer1 <called-party-number>
Both can use sub-addresses.

The following example enables Multilink PPP on BRI 0:

interface BRI0
description Enables PPP Multilink on BRI 0
ip address 7.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
encapsulation ppp
dialer map ip 7.1.1.2 name starbuck 14195291357
dialer map ip 7.1.1.3 name roaster speed 56 14098759854
ppp authentication chap
ppp multilink
dialer load-threshold either 10
dialer-group 1


Monitoring ISDN
Show controller bri00 bri unit and D channel info
Show interface bri0 interface info
Show dialer dialer group info

IOS


16) Login to router in both user and privileged modes Use 'enable' to enter privileged mode.
Use ‘disable’ to exit privileged mode.


17) Use the context sensitive help facility

Symbolic translation
Keyword completion, use "?"
History (see below 9)
Command prompts
Syntax checking


18) Use the command history and editing features

^P (for last command)
^N (for next command)
<tab> (for command completion)
show history (for display of history buffer) term history size number-of-lines <no> terminal editing (to dis-/enable history)
19) Examine router elements (RAM, ROM, CDP, show)

RAM: Holds config, IOS, routing tables. Has a shared,packet,or IO memory for buffers.
ROM: Holds ROM monitor and boot image
NVRAM: Holds startup-config file
Flash: Holds config files, or new boot images.
CDP: Cisco Discovery Protocol, get info about other devices on network

show version display IOS information

show flash display information on flash memory
show memory display information on tables and buffers show buffers
show stacks

show processes CPY shows processes running in RAM
show protocols show protocols in RAM

cdp enable interface config command to turn on CDP on the interface
show cdp show CDP settings show cdp interfaces shows CDP for the routers interfaces show cdp entry routerB show info on routerB gained from CDP
show cdp neighbours show list of neighbours
show cdp neighbours detail show detail on the neighbour


20) Manage configuration files from the privileged exec mode.

show startup-config show conf
show running-config write term
erase startup-config erase mem
configure [ terminal | memory ] conf t


21) Control router passwords, identification, and banner

Passwords:

Set privileged mode password: enable password PASSWORD For older systems enable secret PASSWORD Takes precedence

Line passwords, for logins. con is console port, vty is telnet
The login command after it means a password is prompted for, without it there would be no password needed to access the router.

line con 0
password PASSWORD
login

line vty 0 4
password PASSWORD
login login enables password prompt

Router hostname

hostname NAME

Interface Identification:

Router[config]# interface s0
Router[Config-if]# description Serial link to remote office
Bammers: First an motd banner is displayed, then a login banner, then once logged in either an exec banner if serial connection, or incoming banner if a telnet connection.

banner [exec|incoming|login|motd] [delimiter character]
lines of banner ending with delimiting character
eg banner login ^
sod off!
^


22) Identify main commands for Cisco startup

EXEC command:
reload (reboot Cisco)

ROM monitor command:
boot (boots from ROM - usual default)
boot flash (boots from flash)
boot filename ipaddress (boots via tftp)

Configuration commands - global
boot system flash
boot system rom
boot system [tftp | rcp] filename ipaddress

Configuration Register – global configuration
config-register 0x10X

Where X is a hex digit for boot options:
0x0 Use ROM monitor – manual boot
0x1 Boot from ROM
0x2 – 0xF Look in NVRAM for ‘boot system’ commands

To check current value of config-register do
show version


23) Enter an initial configuration using the setup command

Asks for standard questions - follow menu:
- hostname
- enable secret (password)
- enable password
- enable virtual terminal password
- SNMP
- IP (routing etc.)
- DECNet, XNS, Novell, Apollo, AppleTalk, Vines
- Bridging
- Interfaces
Then asks if you want to use this config. If Yes then saves
to NVRAM, else process begins again

Ctrl-C stops/cancels it.
? at a prompt gives help.

24) Copy and manipulate configuration files copy running-config startup-config write mem copy [tftp | rcp] running-config conf network
copy [tftp | rcp] startup-config conf overwrite-network
copy running-config [tftp | rcp] write network
erase startup-config erase mem


25) List the commands to load Cisco IOS from flash, tftp, ROM.

Configuration commands - global

boot system flash (from flash)
boot system rom (from ROM)
boot host [tftp | rcp] [filename] [ip address]
boot network [tftp | rcp] [filename] [ip address] - for network configs,
gets two files

After 'boot host | network' a 'service config' command after it will make the router use that source when it reboots.


26) Prepare to backup, upgrade, and load a backup IOS image

Preparation:
show flash display free memory and filename!
ping ipaddress check IP connectivity to tftp server
- check image name on tftp server

Backup:
copy flash tftp prompts for IP address and filename

Upgrade:
copy tftp flash prompts for IP address and filename and confirm,
and erase flash confirm.

To load from backup is the same as an upgrade, except that it will warn that the image file is being overwritten (if using same filename).


27) Prepare initial configuration and enable IP.

Setup

Add static IP routes with
ip route network [mask] {address | interface } [distance]
ip default-network network

For monitoring:
show ip protocol
show ip route
show ip interfaces


Network Protocols

28) Monitor Novell IPX operations on the router show ipx interface (status & parameters) show ipx servers (known servers) show ipx route (routing table) show ipx traffic (number & type of packets)

debug ipx routing activity
debug ipx sap ping ipx network.node

29) Define the two parts of network addressing, then identify the parts in specific protocol address examples Network address path part used by router
Host address device on the network

e.g IPX 010a.0123.0123.0123 010a 0123.0123.0123
IP 130.111.123.123 130.111 123.123
X.25 12349876543210 1234 9876543210


30) Create the different classes of IP addresses (and subnetting) A - Very large sites, 0-127, 16,777,214 hosts, 126 networks
B - Large sites, 128-191, 65,534 hosts, 16,384 networks
C - Small sites, 192-223 254 hosts, 1,097,152 networks
D - Multicast, 224-239
E - Experimental, 240-255


31) Configure IP addresses

conf t
int eth0
ip address xx.xx.xx.xx y.y.y.y [secondary]

x.x.x.x is address, y.y.y.y is netmask
Secondary is for multiple addresses - virtual networks.

ip domain-lookup Enable DNS
ip name-server Set DNS server


32) Verify IP addresses

telnet application level
ping icmp level
trace check path packet is taking


33) List the required IPX address and encapsulation type

show ipx int eth0 (both displayed on 2nd line)

Name Cisco type Header format
ethernet II arpa Ethernet ipx
eth 802.2 sap 802.3 802.2 LLC ipx
eth SNAP snap 802.3 802.2 LLC snap ipx
eth 802.3 novell-ether 802.3 ipx
token ring token
token ring SNAP snap
hdlc hdlc hdlc ipx


34) Enable Novell IPX and configure interfaces

Novell addresses are composed of network address - 32 bit number, and a node address 48 bit number (MAC address) represented by dotted triplets of 4 hexadecimal numbers. Eg. 4a.0000.0c00.23fe, where 4a is the network. Leading zeros are not needed. Encapsulation type is optional.
SAP is service advertisement protocol (server announcements)
GNS is clients looking for a server.

ipx routing (enables RIP and SAP)
int eth0
ipx network 1a [encapsulation-type]


Default encapsulation types:
For Ethernet: novell-ether
For Token Ring: sap
For FDDI: snap

Also subinterfaces can be used if there's multiple networks on the same wire.
Alternatively, the 'secondary' qualifier on the end could have been added, like in the IP example.

ipx routing
ipx maximum-paths 2
interface ethernet 0.1
ipx network 1 encapsulation novell-ether
interface ethernet 0.2
ipx network 2 encapsulation snap
interface ethernet 0.3
ipx network 3 encapsulation arpa

ip maximum-paths paths is for load sharing over multiple equal metric paths, eg two serial links to same place.

35) Identify functions of the TCP/IP transport-layer protocols
UDP: Connectionless communication - unreliable TCP: Connection-oriented communication - reliable 36) Identify functions of the TCP/IP network-layer protocols IP: Connectionless datagram delivery
RIP: Routing (also other protocols like OSPF, [E]IGRP)
ICMP: see below
ARP: MAC address resolution
RARP: IP address resolution, usually for bootp


37) Identify the functions performed by ICMP

Control and messaging functions:
Error messaging
Router discovery
Diagnostics/testing


38) Configure IPX access lists and SAP filters to control basic Novell traffic

Standard lists are 800-899, extended lists 900-999, SAP lists are 1000-1099
The Cisco router does not forward SAP broadcasts, but constructs its
own SAP table and broadcasts that (every 60 seconds [standard])
A –1 for service/port specifies ‘any’ service/port.

Standard access-list: (use number 800-899)

Basically filter on network or node address only.

access-list <number> (deny|permit) src-net[.srcnode[srcnodemask]] [dst-net[.dstnode][dstnodemask]]

int eth0
ipx access-group <list-number> {in | out]

Extended access list: (use number 900-999)

Basically has protocol and socket numbers. Also log option.

access-list <number> (deny|permit) protocol [src-net[.srcnode] [srcnetmask.srcnodemask]] src-socket [dst-net[.dstnode][dstnetmask.dstnodemask]]
dst-socket [log]

int eth0
ipx access-group <list-number> {in | out]


SAP: (use number 1000-1099)

To create list -

access-list <number> (permit|deny) network[.node] [network-mask node-mask] [service type[server-name]]

Apply filter(s) to interface -

int eth0
ipx input-sap-filter <number> (filter before constructing SAP table)
ipx output-sap-filter <number> (filter when sending SAP table)
ipx router-sap-filter <number> (filter adverts from a certain router)


Routing


39) Add RIP to configuration router rip network xx.xx.xx.xx network yy.yy.yy.yy The network command specifies the interfaces that RIP info is sent and received. Also only those interfaces will be advertised. debug ip rip (for debugging)

40) Add IGRP to conf

router igrp <autonomous system number>
network xx.xx.xx.xx
network yy.yy.yy.yy

The network command specifies the interfaces that IGRP info is sent and received. Also only those interfaces will be advertised.


41) Explain the services of seperate and integrated multiprotocol routing

Seperate: "ships-in-the-night" routing, i.e. no protocol is
affected any other protocol
Integrated: Replaces native routing algorithm, exchanges common
routing info, still maintains seperate routing tables,
saves resources, simplifies admin's tasks
E.G EIGRP does IP,IPX, appletalk.
42) List problems each routing type encounters when dealing with topology changes and describe techniques to reduce the number of these problems

Distance Vector limitations:

Time to convergence, e.g. distance vector (hop-count) updates occur from router to router (not broadcast)
PROBLEM: Routing loops (slow detection of topology change, incorrect routing table/updates)
SOLUTION 1: Split horizon - If you learn a route on one interface do not send back that info on that same interface – so as not to cause loops.
SOLUTION 2: Route poisoning - If net unreachable set route metric to infinity.

PROBLEM: Network topology keeps changing giving inconsistent network.
SOLUTION: Hold-down timers - Ignore updates for a set period so as not to screw up convergence if an interface goes up and down many times in a short period.
PROBLEM: Counting to infinity (incorrect routing table/updates)
SOLUTION: Define a maximum metric ("max. hop count +1 = infinity"). If metrics get too high due to routing loops.

Link state routing problems:

Processing power, e.g. link-state (OSPF) needs lots of processing power to rebuild the routing database (tree)
Network bandwidth, e.g. initial (multicast) link-state info floods the network

PROBLEM: Unsynchronised updates can arrive at different time based
on bandwidth (slow and fast links)
SOLUTION: Use time stamps, update numbering and counters

PROBLEM: Synchronisation of large networks
SOLUTION: Use link state area hierarchy for topology
SOLUTION: Exchange route summaries at area borders

PROBLEM: Bandwidth and resources usage
SOLUTION: Dampen the periodic update (longer intervals)
SOLUTION: Use targeted multicast (not flood)

PROBLEM: partitioned regions – slow parts separated from fast parts
SOLUTION: manage network using area hierarchy
43) Describe the benefits of network segmentation with routers
Network Security


44) Configure standard and extended access lists to filter IP traffic Used to permit or deny a complete protocol suite based on the source network/subnet/host address Are in the range of 1-99 (IP). Are processed top-down, i.e. first matching rule preempts further
processing
Only one access list per port per direction per protocol
Uses a wildcard mask to define which bits of the network address are
relevant (0 = check this bit, 1 = ignore [inverted subnet mask])
Place standard lists close to the destination, place extended list close
to the source


Standard access lists

access-list <number> (permit|deny) <src> [<src wildcard>] int eth0 ip access-group <number> (in|out)
Extended access lists
access-list <number> (permit|deny) prot src src-wildcard src-port dst dst-wildcard dst-port [est] [log] int eth0 ip access-group <number> (in|out)
45) Monitor and verify access lists show ip interfaces (to see applied access lists)
show ipx interfaces
show access-lists <number>

LAN Switching


46) Describe the advantages of LAN segmentation
Smaller broadcast domains (via routers) Smaller collision domains (via switching) Dedicated circuits for high-load devices
Relieve congestion


47) Describe LAN segmentation using bridges

Connects several LAN together, either local or wide-area
Link-layer function


48) Describe LAN segmentation using routers

Connects LANs together, but seperates broadcasts and possibly
protocols
Each segment is a broadcast domain of it's own
Can connect networks that use different media

49) Describe LAN segmentation using switches

Connects several LAN together locally, same protocol Link-layer function Each segment is a collision domain of it's own


50) Name and describe two switching methods

Cut-through and store and forward. see below 57)


51) Full- and half-duplex operation

Full: Send and receive data concurrently in both directions - no collisions
on the segment
Half: Only one can send at any given time


52) Describe the network congestion problem in Ethernet networks

Collisions: Too many devices in one segment, too many want
to "talk" at the same time


53) Describe the benefits of network segmentation with bridges


54) Describe the benefits of network segmentation with switches Dedicated bandwidth to each port. Full duplex. 55) Describe the features and benefits of Fast Ethernet 100 Mbps, faster than 10 Mbps
Proven technology, supported by known architecture
Price, performance, ease of migration
High reliability, wide industry support
100 Base-T standard
Allows for ether channels (bundling of lines)
Coexists with 10 Base-T


56) Describe the guidelines and distance limitations of Fast Ethernet

CAT-5 cabling required
Maximum 100 meter cable run for UTP, 2000 meters for fibre
(to stay within 512 bit times)


57) Distinguish between cut-through and store-and-forward switching

Cut-through: Determine destination after first 64 bytes
Packet switching approach that streams data through a switch so that the leading edge of a packet exits the switch at the output port before the packet finishes entering the input port. A device using cut-through packet switching reads, processes, and forwards packets as soon as the destination address is looked up and the outgoing port determined. Also known as on-the-fly packet switching.
Some routers have two different versions, one called FastForward forwards after the first bit is received. The other is FragFree which receives 64 bytes to make sure it isn’t a collision fragment and then starts forwarding - still has a low latency but with less errors than the FastForward.
Compare with Store-and-forward: Switch pulls in the complete packet first and checks CRC and destination and then forwards it.


58) Describe the operation of Spanning Tree Protocol and it’s benefits

Ensures the existence of a loop-free topology in networks that
contain parallel bridges/switches. Uses 802.1d protocol between bridging devices to communicate. Bridges regularly check neighbours to see they're still up, if not a spanning tree is recalculated. Bridges put interfaces which would create loops into a standby mode - ie don't forward traffic.


59) Describe the benefits of virtual LANs

Broadcast control
Performance - put power users on their own lan
Security - isolate a part of the network or restrict access to it via
firewalling router
Network management - no longer need to repatch to change network.


60) Define and describe a MAC address Link layer address to uniquely identify a device/port in a LAN segment, is 48 bits (= 6 bytes) long, first 3 bytes identify a vendor code





Notes:


Telnet escape sequence is <ctrl><shift><6><x>


Logging:

no logging buffered log to console

terminal monitor log to telnet session

logging on log to UNIX syslog
logging 202.36.149.2
show logging

logging buffered logs are kept in buffers in the router


When troubleshooting:

>Show interface ser0
serial0 is up, line protocol is up working
serial0 is up, line protocol is down connection problem – no keepalives
serial0 is down, line protocol is down interface problem – no carrier
serial0 is administratively down interface disabled

Physical layer deals with carrier, data link layers deals with keepalives and control and user information.

 



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Bölüm: CCNA
4-  Ayrıntılı bilgi için tıklayın... windows server 2003 15 mpls
$ - Print$ - Admin$ gibi bilgisayarynyzda standart açylan payla?ymlary süresiz kapatmak için; Regedit/Hkey_Local_Machine/System/.....
Bölüm: CCNA
5-  Ayrıntılı bilgi için tıklayın... Turkce Cisco notlar(CCNA-CCNP) 75 aslanalp
OSI Referans Modeli
Bilgisayar a?lary kullanylmaya ba?landy?y ilk zamanlarda sadece ayny üreticinin üretti?i cihazlar birbirle.....
Bölüm: CCNA
6-  Ayrıntılı bilgi için tıklayın... ccna notlar 75 Romansonazalea
OSI Referans Modeli
Bilgisayar ağları kullanılmaya başlandığı ilk zamanlarda sadece aynı üreticinin ürettiği cihazlar birbirle.....
Bölüm: CCNA
7-  Ayrıntılı bilgi için tıklayın... CCNA Sorular - 1 (Açıklamalı 330 soru) 60 fender1905
Cisco CCNA 2.0
INTERNETWORKING BASICS


1.Which two statements about frame tagging are true?
(Choose two)

A. A filter.....
Bölüm: CCNA
8-  Ayrıntılı bilgi için tıklayın... CCNA Sorular - 4 60 fender1905
Cisco CCNA 2.0
INTERNETWORKING BASICS


1.Which two statements about frame tagging are true?
(Choose two)

A. A filter.....
Bölüm: CCNA
9-  Ayrıntılı bilgi için tıklayın... CHAPTER4 + CCNA + testking 75 cemtolga
CHAPTER 4

Question 1:
Which best describes an insulator?

A. Any material with a low resistance to electrical current.
.....
Bölüm: CCNA
10-  Ayrıntılı bilgi için tıklayın... CHAPTER3 + CCNA + testking 75 cemtolga
CHAPTER 3


Question 1:
Because a cloud is not really a device, but a collection of assumed capabilities, which OSI layers a.....
Bölüm: CCNA
Devamı...
 


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